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Strokes killed over 800 people in Singapore in 2021 alone. There are two main kinds of stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke is when a blood vessel ruptures, while in ischemic stroke is when a blood vessel in the vein is blocked by plaque or a clot.

Dr. Manish Taneja

Stroke Specialist, Supreme Vascular and Interventional Clinic

Overview of Hemorrhagic Stroke

 

Have you or a loved one recently been diagnosed with a stroke? Strokes can be a scary health event due to their potential to cause serious and sometimes life-threatening health outcomes. They occur when the blood supply to the brain is disrupted, leading to damage or death of brain cells. Strokes can cause a sudden onset of various symptoms, such as weakness or numbness in one side of the body, trouble speaking or understanding speech, severe headaches, dizziness, or loss of balance. Hemorrhagic stroke causes are varied and must be evaluated by medical professionals so that you can prevent them in the future.

There are two different major types of strokes, categorized based on their underlying causes:

  • Ischemic Stroke: This is the most common type, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood clot blocks or plugs an artery, restricting blood flow to the brain.
  • Hemorrhagic Stroke: These happen when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures or leaks, causing bleeding into the brain tissue. It accounts for about 13% of all strokes. Read more about the different types of stroke in our other blog post.
cheerful father carrying daughter on neck smiling

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Hemorrhagic Stroke (Bleeds)

 

A hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and causes bleeding. Imagine that the blood vessels in your brain are like pipes carrying blood. If one of those pipes suddenly breaks and starts leaking, it can lead to a hemorrhagic stroke. This can be quite dangerous because the leaked blood can cause pressure in the brain. The damage is like water leaking from a broken pipe, damaging the surrounding area. A  hemorrhagic stroke is when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and causes bleeding, which can be harmful to the brain.

There are two subtypes of hemorrhagic stroke: intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Intracerebral hemorrhage refers to bleeding within the brain tissues. A subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when blood leaks into the space between the brain and the surrounding tissues. Strokes can result in severe neurological issues. They also have a higher mortality rate compared to ischemic strokes, which is why it is so important to seek treatment immediately if you notice the signs. Diagnosing the cause and symptoms is the first step doctors will take. Then, they can decide on treatment.

The second type of stroke is hemorrhagic stroke.
The first type of stroke is called ischemic stroke.

Symptoms of Hemorrhagic Stroke

 

Hemorrhagic stroke symptoms can be varied and include:

  • Sudden and severe headache: A person may experience a sudden, extreme headache different from any they have experienced before. Often, they describe it as “the worst headache ever.” If asked to evaluate, they often say the pain is ten out of ten.
  • Nausea and vomiting: The person may feel nauseous and vomit due to the intense headache. Sometimes, this is mistaken as a migraine. The pain level can help determine if the headache and nausea are abnormal.
  • Weakness or numbness: They may feel weak or numb on one side of their body or face. For example, their arm may look limp or experience sagging on one side of the face.
  • Difficulty speaking or understanding: A stroke victim may have trouble speaking, slurred speech, or understanding what others say. Some people will have aphasia, where they speak what sounds like “gibberish,” but it makes sense to them.
  • Loss of balance and coordination: They might experience sudden dizziness or have trouble walking. This can sometimes be mistaken as intoxication.
  • Vision problems: They may experience blurred or double vision, or their eyesight may become impaired.

It’s important to note that if someone experiences hemorrhagic stroke symptoms, they should seek immediate medical attention. Getting medical care as soon as possible can help minimize brain damage. Call 9-9-5 or get to the nearest emergency room immediately if you or a loved one are experiencing the below stroke warning signs.

 

Hemorrhagic Stroke Causes

 

Hemorrhagic stroke can be caused by ruptured aneurysms, bleeding from arteriovenous malformations, high blood pressure, and underlying medical conditions that affect blood clotting or vessel health.  A specialized hemorrhagic stroke clinic in Singapore will work to find the cause of a stroke and how to prevent it in the future.

Aneurysms, weakened areas in blood vessel walls, can burst and cause bleeding. Brain Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), which are abnormal tangles of blood vessels, can rupture and bleed as well. Read more about the difference between AVM and brain aneurysm in our other informative article. High blood pressure is a major cause of hemorrhagic stroke. When left uncontrolled, high blood pressure can weaken blood vessel walls, making them more prone to rupture. Other diseases can cause a stroke as well. For example, blood clotting disorders and liver disease can increase the risk of strokes and should be adequately treated. Autoimmune diseases like lupus can also cause strokes.

Diagnosis of Hemorrhagic Stroke

 

Hemorrhagic stroke diagnosis takes place using a combination of medical history evaluation, physical examination, and imaging tests. Hemorrhagic stroke treatment in Singapore is no different; a doctor will work closely with you to review your medical history, looking for risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, or a family history of stroke. They will then perform a physical examination to assess neurological symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking, which all are symptoms.

Imaging tests are used to confirm the diagnosis of a hemorrhagic stroke. Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most commonly used tests. CT scans can quickly detect bleeding in the brain. MRIs can pick up subtle imaging that CTs cannot. Occasionally, a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis may be performed to confirm a diagnosis.
Once diagnosed, we will work to manage any associated complications and determine the underlying cause of the bleed.

The treatment and management of strokes depend on various factors. Doctors evaluate the location and severity of the bleed, the patient’s overall health, and the underlying cause. The primary goals of treatment are to stop the bleeding, reduce pressure on the brain, prevent complications, and support the patient’s recovery. Patients will often show small signs of improvement while still in the hospital. Watching the patients is a good way for doctors to evaluate them and help plan their treatment.

Hemorrhagic Stroke Treatment Options and Management in Singapore

 

Hemorrhagic stroke treatment in Singapore is patient-centered, focusing on healing and prevention. General supportive care includes maintaining stable vital signs, providing oxygen therapy, and monitoring the patient’s neurological status closely. Medications may be administered to control blood pressure, prevent seizures, and alleviate pain or discomfort. Not all hemorrhagic strokes require surgical intervention. The decision for surgery depends on factors such as the size, location, and stability of the aneurysm, as well as the patient’s overall health.

Stroke Treatment Options

  • Aneurysm Clipping: This procedure is performed if a ruptured cerebral aneurysm causes the hemorrhage. It involves surgery that places a small metal clip at the aneurysm’s base to prevent further bleeding.
  • Endovascular Coiling: Also known as endovascular embolization, this minimally invasive invasive procedure involves inserting a catheter through the groin and navigating it to the aneurysm site. Tiny platinum coils are then threaded through the catheter, causing it to clot.
  • Stent-Assisted Coiling: This procedure combines stents and endovascular coiling. A stent is placed across the neck of the aneurysm to provide additional support and prevent coil migration.
  • Clot Removal: In some cases, surgery can help remove a clot or relieve pressure on the brain caused by the bleed.

A hemorrhagic stroke specialist in Singapore will work with each patient individually to educate them and help explore their options. After treatment or surgery, rehabilitation is the next phase. It can help restore a patient’s quality of life. Physical, occupational, and speech therapy may be necessary to help patients regain mobility and function, overcome communication difficulties, and begin to reclaim their lives. Have you or a loved one experienced a stroke or stroke-like symptoms? We’re here to help diagnose and formulate a plan for wellness. Get in touch today to learn more about your options and how we can help you get the best outcome possible.

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The Supreme Vascular and Interventional Clinic’s Comprehensive Stroke Treatments in Singapore

 

The Supreme Vascular and Interventional Clinic provides a full spectrum of neurointerventional treatments that seek to deal with  stroke-related issues. There are personalized treatment plans for stroke to improve your quality of life. Contact us today to see how we can help you on your stroke journey with our programs including stroke screening, management, and prevention.

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We’ve Got You Covered for Specialized Stroke Screening, Prevention, and Management

 

Imagine heart attacks where the blood flow to your heart is blocked. Similarly, a stroke occurs when the blood flow to your brain is interrupted becoming a “brain attack”. When blood supply does not reach a certain part, brain cells begin to die. Different types of stroke include ischemic strokes (blockage of blood vessel due to blood clot) or a mini stroke, a TIA (transient ischemic attack), with no permanent damage yet serious. Stroke also occurs when a blood vessel in the brain pops causing bleeding in the brain.

Certain areas of the brain can be affected by stroke and some symptoms of a stroke including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and high blood sugar levels increase the risk of stroke whereas an active lifestyle or controlling high cholesterol reduces the risk. How well do you know stroke? Find tips to prevent and manage stroke, the differences in stroke screening tests, and the newer technology and treatments available. Come in for an easy consultation and further evaluation with our stroke specialist in Singapore at the Supreme Vascular and Interventional Clinic.

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A brain aneurysm is a weak or bulging area in the wall of an artery in the brain. When an aneurysm ruptures or bursts, it can lead to a type of stroke called a hemorrhagic stroke.

Neurointerventional / Stroke Treatments

The Supreme Vascular and Interventional Clinic is your “go-to” facility for various neurointerventional / stroke conditions and treatments. To arrange an appointment with Dr. Manish Taneja, our neurointervention specialist, contact us. You can also call us at (+65) 6904 8084 for a consultation.